Üsküdar University Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences Chemical Engineering English Department Vice President Dr. Instructor Member Nigar Kantarcı Çarşıbaşı; He gave information about the usage areas of rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries, the environmental effects of the materials in the batteries and recycling methods.
Stating that batteries consist of a negative electrode (anode) and a positive electrode (cathode) and an electrolyte that provides a chemical reaction between the two electrodes, Dr. Nigar Kantarcı Çarşıbaşı said, “In other words, devices that convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy and store it are defined as batteries. There are different types of batteries on the market. Batteries are divided into wet or dry. In wet cell batteries, the electrolyte is liquid. In dry cell batteries, the electrolyte is in the form of paste or gel. Batteries also contain other chemicals to control the chemical reactions inside. For example, mercury prevents corrosion and self-discharge of the battery.” said.
Stating that it is possible to classify batteries as rechargeable and non-rechargeable, Dr. Nigar Kantarcı Çarşıbaşı said, “Non-rechargeable zinc batteries are used in low-power devices such as TV remotes and wall clocks. Alkaline batteries are compatible with devices such as remotes and watches, as well as cameras, sphygmomanometers and toy cars. Lithium, another non-rechargeable battery type, is used as a memory battery in computer motherboards, electronic scales, glucose meters, water meters, automobile and door controls. said.
Dr. Nigar Kantarcı Çarşıbaşı continued his words as follows:
“There are 4 different types of batteries that can be charged. Nickel metal hydride (Ni-Mh) batteries; It is used in cordless drills, handheld vacuum cleaners and emergency lighting panels. Lithium-Ion batteries are also preferred in mobile phones, laptops and electric cars. Lithium polymer batteries are produced and used in special sizes for portable devices such as tablet computers and navigation. Nickel cadmium batteries are preferred in cordless drills, handheld vacuum cleaners and emergency lighting panels.”
Stating that the batteries that have completed their useful life or become unusable as a result of physical damage are defined as ‘Waste Battery’, Dr. Nigar Kantarcı Çarşıbaşı said, “Zinc batteries, lithium-ion batteries and alkaline batteries are the types of waste batteries. Batteries, batteries and batteries contain various substances that can be very dangerous for the environment. The vast majority of this is made up of heavy metals that harm the environmental environment. Heavy metals used in the composition of batteries are generally nickel, cadmium, copper, zinc, cobalt and lead. Many of these metals are harmful to humans, animals and plants. The biggest concern is that these metals or metabolites may enter the food chain or adversely affect human health through direct water. For this reason, these residues are collected with great care and separately in developed countries. After being subjected to physical and chemical processes in special waste removal or processing centers, it is recycled in healthy environmental conditions in a way that does not adversely affect the water, soil, air and living environment. The remaining useless part is stored in healthy, special waste storage areas.” said.
Emphasizing that recycling of portable type waste batteries has 3 main goals, Dr. Nigar Kantarcı Çarşıbaşı said, “These are to protect the receiving environment from harmful emissions that may arise from waste batteries, to prevent heavy metals from mixing with soil or water, and to create economic gain by recycling some precious metals in the batteries. For example, a company in Australia produces fertilizer that can be used for crops from waste batteries. Battery stores in Europe are also obliged to have a recycling bin for batteries. Customers are also encouraged to throw their used batteries into these boxes. In this way, most of the consumed batteries can reach recycling centers without mixing with other wastes. Recycling methods can be mechanical, hydrometallurgical (chemical/physical) or pyrometallurgical (thermal). he said.
Update date: 17/01/2023