The Lithium Ion Battery Revolution: A Handbook on Production, Recycling of Lithium Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries

Handbook on Production, Recycling of Lithium Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries (with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details & Plant Layout)

(ProNewsReport Editorial):- Delhi, India Jun 2, 2022 ( – You will understand the full concept of the Battery Industry with the help of a book. To know more about lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries, there are some important aspects such as production, recycling, etc. The information mentioned in the book will be helpful for startups planning to start new manufacturing units, who want to expand their existing business areas in the lithium-ion or lead-acid battery Manufacturing or recycling industry, or who are already running either of these businesses.

This Handbook on Production, Recycling of Lithium-Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries (with Manufacturing Process, Machinery Equipment Details & Plant Layout) provides valuable information on all necessary aspects related to lithium-ion and lead-acid battery industries that we are explaining here. So, stay tuned till the end to get the most information and details on how to buy the book.

It also includes a process flow diagram (PFD) for both types of batteries which is useful for any company which wants to set up a new plant or expand its current operations. All details like machinery equipment required, plant layout, raw materials used, etc. have been included in it so that it can be used by companies while starting up their own plants.

Apart from process flow diagrams, an overview of complete recycling processes has also been given in detail. Also, a brief history of the evolution of each type has been provided along with its present status across different countries. It will be very useful for anyone interested in knowing more about lithium-ion and lead-acid battery industries.


Indian Battery Sector

India is one of the world’s largest battery manufacturers. Furthermore, there is an increase in global demand for batteries, and Indian battery producers are preparing to satisfy this need. The Indian battery sector has grown by 25% year over year and is expected to increase even more in the future. Batteries, such as Sealed Maintenance Free (SMF), lead-acid, or lithium-ion batteries, now power virtually everything else in the world.


The Future of Recycling of Batteries in India:

India, the world’s second-largest producer of electronic goods, has an estimated stockpile of about 500 million lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries that are discarded annually. Despite the existence of stringent laws to promote and encourage battery recycling in India, less than 5% of all discarded batteries are being recycled currently. A large percentage of these recyclable batteries are ending up in landfills due to the lack of proper collection and recycling facilities across the country.

Recycling batteries should be a major priority in India, given the country’s growing e-waste problem and the fact that consumers have been slow to adapt to new battery technologies such as lithium-ion batteries.

Future of recycling of Lithium-Ion Battery in India:

In the coming years, India’s commitment to the shift from fossil fuel-based vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) will dramatically raise the demand for batteries. Among the several extant battery technologies, the lithium-ion battery (LiB) is now the most suited alternative.

Although there are many different types of LiB batteries, the majority of electric vehicles use lithium nickel manganese cobalt (LNMC) and lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries. These batteries have a shelf life of eight to ten years, but once their energy-generating capability falls below 80%, they are no longer suitable for electric vehicles. These batteries, on the other hand, can still be employed in stationary applications such as renewable energy storage and other stationary applications.

In India, roughly 0.4 GWh LiBs were available for recycling in 2020, according to reports. By 2030, it is predicted that the total volume of retired LiBs (straight from EVs and after second-use applications) would be roughly 70 GWh. With proper recycling treatment, around 90% of these can be recovered.

Valuable metals like cobalt, nickel, manganese, lithium, graphite, and aluminum can be recovered up to 90% with current recycling technology. These account for roughly 50-60% of the entire battery cost, with cobalt being the most costly.

Some topics covered in this handbook:-



       1.1.  Principles of Operation                                    

       1.2. Primary Batteries                                          

                1.2.1.    Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Systems

                1.2.2.    Zinc-Mercuric Oxide Battery

                1.2.3.    Zinc-Silver Oxide Battery

                1.2.4.    Lithium Batteries

                1.2.5.    Air-Depolarized Batteries

                1.2.6.    Other Primary Battery Systems

                1.2.7.    Storage Batteries

                1.2.8.    Lead-Acid Batteries

                1.2.9.    Alkaline Storage Batteries

                1.2.10.  Lithium Storage Batteries                                      

      1.3. Development of Batteries                                   


  • Battery Design and Function


      2.1.  Lithium-Ion Battery Electrochemistry and Function    

                2.1.1. Anode and Cathode Material Consideration                   

                2.1.2. Cylindrical vs Prismatic Cell Design Tradeoffs

        2.2.  Battery Module Design Approach                        

      2.3.  Safety Considerations                                     


  • Industrial Battery Outlook


        3.1.         The Lead-Acid Segment Expected to Dominate

             the Market                                                 

      3.2. Asia-Pacific to Dominate the Industrial Battery Market


  • Future Scope of Lithium-Ion Batteries


        4.1. Present Day Lithium-Ion Batteries                 

      4.2. Deficiencies of Present Lithium-Ion Batteries and

             Likely Improvements                                   

      4.3. Li-Ion Batteries are Amazing Energy Storage Devices 

      4.4. The Future of Li-Ion Energy Storage              

      4.5. A Finite Resource                                       

      4.6. Early Li-Ion Battery Development                       



  • Future of Lithium-Ion Batteries


      and Electrification

        5.1.         Major Trends

      5.2. Technological Trends                                  

      5.3. Future Trends in Battery Technology              

      5.4. Conclusion                                                



        6.1.         General Characteristics

      6.2. Advantages                                               

      6.3. Classification                                             

      6.4. Chemistry                                                              

                6.4.1. Lithium                                                           

                6.4.2. Cathode Materials                                            

                6.4.3. Electrolytes                                                     

                6.4.4. Cells Couples and Reaction Mechanisms          

      6.5. Characteristics of Lithium Primary Batteries    

                6.5.1. Summary of Design and

                        Performance Characteristics                              

                6.5.2. Soluble-Cathode Lithium Primary Batteries        

                6.5.3. Solid-Cathode Lithium Primary Cells                  

      6.6. Safety and Handling of Lithium Batteries        

                6.61. Factors Affecting Safety and Handling                

      6.7. Safety Considerations                                 

      6.8. Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2) Batteries        

                6.8.1. Chemistry                                                       

                6.8.2. Construction                                                    

                6.8.3. Performance                                                   

      6.9. Cell and Battery Types and Sizes                  

        6.10.Use and Handling of Li/SO2 Cells and Batteries-

             Safety Considerations                                 

      6.11.        Applications                                      

      6.12.        Lithium/Thionyl Chloride (Li/SOCl2) Batteries    

                6.12.1. Chemistry                                                     

                6.12.2. Bobbin-Type Cylindrical Batteries                    


                6.12.4. Li/SOCl2 Cells, Flat or Disk-Type                     


  • Lithium-Ion Battery Applications


      7.1. Personal Transportation Applications                   

      7.2.  Automotive Applications                                  

      7.3. Microhybrid Electric Vehicles                            

      7.4. Hybrid Electric Vehicles                                  

      7.5. PHEVs and EREVs                                        

      7.6. Battery Electric Vehicles                                 

      7.7. Fuel Cell EVs                                              

      7.8. Bus and Public Transportation                           

      7.9. HD Truck Applications                                    

      7.10. Industrial Applications                                    

      7.11.         Robotics and Autonomous Applications        

      7.12. Marine and Maritime Applications                       

      7.13. Grid and Stationary Applications                         

      7.14. Bulk Energy Storage                                       

      7.15. Ancillary Services                                         

      7.16. Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Services

      7.17.        Customer Energy Management Services        

      7.18.        Community Energy Storage                       

      7.19.        Aerospace Applications                       


  • Lithium Battery Manufacturing


      8.1  Electrode Coating                                       

      8.2. Cell Assembly                                                       

                8.2.1. Prismatic Cells                                                

                8.2.2. Cylindrical Cells                                               

      8.3. Formation                                                  

      8.4. Process Control                                         

      8.5. Support Services                                        

      8.6. Lithium-ion Battery Pack Assembly Line Making Machine    

                8.6.1. Battery Cell Tester                                           

                8.6.2. Auto Paper Pasting Machine                            

                8.6.3. Auto Sorting Machine                                       

                8.6.4. Spot Welding Machine                                     

                8.6.5. Integrated Tester                                             

                8.6.6. Charging Discharging Aging Machine                 


  • Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries


      9.1. Repairing and Remanufacturing                     

      9.2.         Refurbishing, Repurposing, and Second Life     

      9.3.         Second Life Partnerships                     

      9.4.         Recycling                                          

      9.5.         Manufacturing Process                        

      9.6.         Manufacturing Equipments                   

                9.6.1. Filter Press-Removal of the Black Mass           

                9.6.2. Filter Press-Removal of the Lithium Carbonate  

                9.6.3. Features                                                         

        9.7.         Evaporation and Heated Tank System    

      9.8. Clarifier                                                                  

                9.8.1 Features                                                          

      9.9.  Sludge Dryer                                               

                9.9.1. Features and Benefits                                      

      9.10.        Thermal Evaporators                           

                9.10.1. Benefits of Evaporators                                  

      9.11.        Reverse Osmosis (RO)                        

                9.11.1. Applications                                                  

      9.12. Ultrafiltration                                            

                9.12.1. Attributes                                                      

      9.13.          Atmospheric Evaporators



      10.1.        Electrochemistry                                

      10.2.        Materials and Methods                        

                10.2.1. Materials                                                       

                10.2.2. Hydrogen Evolution and Half-Cell Test             

                10.2.3. Full-Cell Test                                                 

      10.3.          Results and Discussion                       

      10.4.        Aluminium-Air Battery: Discovery, Commercial Alloys, and State of The Art  

      10.5.        Discovery and Production                          

      10.6.Commercial Aluminium Alloys                      



      11.1.          Electro-Chemical Description               

      11.2. Temperature Effects on Performance            

      11.3. Voltage and Capacity                                 

      11.4.        Discharge Types                               

      11.5.        Shelf Life                                         

      11.6.        The Shelf Life is influenced by Temperature,

             Humidity and Internal Construction               

      11.7.        Testing / Care / Warnings                        

                11.7.1. Testing

                11.7.2. Warnings

        11.8.          Current                                           

      11.9.  Construction                                           

      11.10. Recharging of Alkaline Batteries                     

                  11.10.1. Leaks                                                            

                  11.10.2. Disposal                                                        

                  11.10.3. Alkaline Battery Recycling Industry                        

      11.11.  How are Batteries Made?



      12.1. Anodes for Metal-Air Batteries                     

                12.1.1 Lithium                                                           

                12.1.2. Magnesium                                                   

                12.1.3. Iron                                                               

                12.1.4. Zinc                                                              

       12.2. Cathodes for Metal-Air Batteries                  

       12.3. Catalyst for Air Cathodes                           



        13.1. Introduction                                             

      13.2. Lead Batteries in Applications                     

                13.2.1. Types of Lead-Acid Batteries                          

                13.2.2. Typical Commercially Available Battery Units   

                13.2.3. Use Pattern of Lead-Acid Batteries                  

                13.2.4. Charge-Discharge Procedures of

                           Lead-Acid Batteries                                       

      13.3. Nonautomobile Applications of Lead-Acid  Batteries 

                13.3.1. Stationary Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries 

                13.3.2. Standby Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries    

                13.3.3. Backup Power Applications of

                           Lead-Acid Batteries                                       

      13.4.        Automobile Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries 

                13.4.1. Automobile Starting-Lighting-Ignition Applications         

                13.4.2. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

                          of Lead-Acid Batteries                                     


  • Lead-Acid Batteries Fundamentals,


      Technologies, and Applications

      14.1 Introduction                                               

      14.2 Materials and Properties                              

                14.2.1. Porosity, Pore Size, and Pore Shape               

                14.2.2. Ionic Resistance                                            

                14.2.3. Electrochemical Compatibility                         

                14.2.4. Acidic and Oxidation Stability                         

                14.2.5. Puncture Resistance                                      

                14.2.6. Surface Area                                                 

      14.3.        Separator Synthesis                           

                14.3.1. Polyethylene Separator                                  

                14.3.2. Absorptive Glass Mat Separator                      

                14.3.3. Separator                                                      

                14.3.4. Rubber Separators                                         

      14.4.        Separator Structure Design and Fabrication      

                14.4.1. Positive Ribs                                                 

                14.4.2. Negative Ribs                                                

                14.4.3. Embossed/Corrugated                                    

                14.4.4. Compression/Resiliency                                 

                14.4.5. Fabrication                                                    

      14.5. Effects of Material Composition, Morphology, and

             Synthesis Conditions on Battery Performance

                14.5.1. Antimony Poisoning and Water Loss               

                14.5.2. Low Electrical Resistance                               

        14.6.        Effect of Battery Operating Conditions on

            Separator Performance                                         

                14.6.1. Basic Condition/Extreme Shrinkage                 

                14.6.2. Hydration Shorts                                            

                14.6.3. Extreme Oxidation                                         

      14.7.        Technical Challenges, Mitigation Strategies,

            and Perspectives                                        

                14.7.1. High-Power Starter Batteries                           

                14.7.2. Deep-Cycle Batteries                                     


  • Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing



        15.1 Casting in a Grid                                                  

                15.1.1 Grid Caster                                                    

                15.1.2.Strip Expansion Grid                                       

                15.1.3 Continuous Grid Caster                                   

      15.2. Production of Lead Oxide                           

                15.2.1. Barton Pot Process                                        

                15.2.2. Ball Mill process                                            

       15.3. Paste Mixing                                            

                15.3.1. Batch Paste Mixer                                         

        15.4. Pasting                                                   

      15.5. Curing                                                     

       15.6. Formation                                                            

                15.6.1. Formation of Positive Plates                           

                15.6.2. Formation of Negative Plates                          

                15.6.3. Tank Formation                                             

                15.6.4. Case Formation                                             

      15.7. Battery Assembly                                     

                15.7.1.Group Stacking                                               

                15.7.2. Alignment                                                      

                15.7.3. Group Burning                                               

                15.7.4. Group Alignment                                            

      15.8. Group Insertion                                         

                15.8.1. Inspection and Terminal Alignment                  

                15.8.2. Short Circuit Testing                                      

                15.8.3. Intercell Welding                                            

                15.8.4. Shear Testing                                                

                15.8.5. Case Cover Sealing                                       

                15.8.6. Leak Testing                                                 

                15.8.7. Terminal (Post) Burning                                  

                15.8.8. Aluminum Foil Sealing                                    

                15.8.9. Acid Filling                                                    

                15.8.10. Packing                                                       

                15.8.11. Quality Assurance and Control                      


  • Recycling of Lead-Acid Battery


       16.1. Battery Breaking                                       

                16.1.1. Historical Background of Battery Breaking       

                16.1.2. Modern Battery Breaking Process                   

                16.1.3. Battery Breaking: Potential Sources of

                          Environmental Contamination                          

       16.2. Lead Reduction                                         

                16.2.1. Pyrometallurgical Methods                              

                16.2.2. Hydrometallurgical Methods                             

                16.2.3. Lead Reduction: Potential Sources

                          of Environmental Contamination                       

      16.3. Lead Refining                                           

                16.3.1 Pyrometallurgical Refining                               

                16.3.2 Lead Refining: Potential Sources of

                          Environmental Contamination                          

      16.4.        Lead Battery Recycling Plant               

                16.4.1. Scope                                                           

       16.5 Manufacturing Equipment:                            

                16.5.1. Battery Cutting Machines / Battery Breakers    

                16.5.2. Rotary Furnace                                              

                16.5.3. Pollution Control Plant                                    

                16.5.4. Refining and Alloying Pots                              

                16.5.5. Ingoting Systems                                  



      17.1.        General Characteristics                       

      17.2.        Chemistry                                         

      17.3.        Types of Cells and Batteries                

                17.3.1. Leclanche´ Batteries                                      

                17.3.2. Zinc Chloride Batteries                                        

      17.4. Construction                                            

                17.4.1. Cylindrical Configuration                                 

                17.4.2. Inside Out Cylindrical Construction                  

                17.4.3. Flat Cell and Battery                                      

                17.4.4 Special Designs                                              

      17.5.        Cell Components                                

                17.5.1. Zinc                                                              

                17.5.2. Bobbin                                                          

                17.5.3. Manganese Dioxide (MnO2)                             

                17.5.4. Carbon Black                                                 

                17.5.5. Electrolyte                                                     

                17.5.6. Corrosion Inhibitor                                          

                17.5.7. Carbon Rod                                                   

                17.5.8. Separator                                                      

                17.5.9. Seal                                                              


                17.5.11. Electrical Contacts                                       

      17.6. Performance Characteristics                       

                17.6.1. Voltage                                                         

                17.6.2. Discharge Characteristics                               

                17.6.3. Effect of Intermittent Discharge                       

                17.6.4. Comparative Discharge Curves–Size Effect

                           Upon Heavy Duty Zinc-chloride Batteries         

                17.6.5. Comparative Discharge Curves–Different

                           Battery Grades                                              

                17.6.6. Internal Resistance                                        

                17.6.7. Effect of Temperature                                    

                17.6.8. Service Life                                                   

                17.6.9. Shelf-Life                                                      

      17.7.        Special Designs                                

                17.7.1. Flat-Pack Zinc/Manganese Dioxide P-80 Battery           

       17.8. Battery Parameters                                   

       17.9. Types and Sizes of Available Cells and Batteries     


  • Environmental Issues for Batteries


        18.1. Lifecycle Analysis (LCA)                            

        18.2. Material Issues                                         

                18.2.1. Resource Availability                                      

        18.3. Environmental Impacts                              

                18.3.1. Electrode Materials                                              

                18.3.2. Electrolyte Risks                                                

                18.3.3. Binders                                                            

        18.4. Material Issues: Going Forwards                 

                18.4.1. Energy Density                                              

                18.4.2. Alternative Materials                                      

             18.4.3. Non-Fluorinated Binders                                 

                18.4.4. Cobalt Substitution                                         

        18.5. Energy Issues: Production and Charging       

                18.5.1. Source Of Energy for Production                     

                18.5.2. Roundtrip Efficiency                                       

        18.6. Lifespan                                                  

        18.7. End-of-Life (EoL) treatment                        

                18.7.1. Recycling                                                      

                18.7.2. Re-Use                                                         

                18.7.3. Design for Recycling and Re-Use                    


  • International Standards and


      Testing Applicable to Batteries

Standards and Safety Testing Organisations        

General Battery Standards      

Lithium Battery Standards       

Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Standards  

Nickel Cadmium Battery Standards        

Lead Acid Battery Standards    

Photovoltaic Battery Standards 

Safety Standards      

Automotive Battery Standards  

Aircraft Battery Standards       

Military Standards for Batteries, Software,

     EMC/RFI, Safety & Quality 

Radio Battery Standards         

Standby Power Systems Standards       

Software Standards   

EMC/RFI Standards  

Ingress Protection (IP) Standards          

Battery Monitoring Standards   

Battery Recycling and Disposal Standards           

Other Related Electrical Standards        

Quality Standards     


  • BIS Specifications
  • Plant Layout and Process Flow Chart


      & Diagram


  • Automated Manufacturing Equipment


       22.1. Equipment Specifications                           

        22.2. Kaido Winder                                           

       22.3. Hibar Equipment                                                 

                22.3.1. Module 1: Bottom Tab Welding System                      

                22.3.2. Module 2: Beading/Grooving System                         

                22.3.3. Module 3: Sealant Dispensing System                       

                22.3.4. Module 4: Electrolyte Filling System                         

                22.3.5. Module 5: Top Tab Welding and Taping System            

                22.3.6. Module 6: Final Crimping System                             

      22.4. Formation and Test Equipment                    

        22.5.  Machine Vision Approach and Implementation        

                22.5.1. Part Serial Number / Bar Code Tracking           

        22.6. Manufacturing Equipment Installation                   

        22.7. Operator Training                                          

        22.8. Manufacturing Equipment Validation                    

                22.8.1. Kaido Winder Validation                                      

                22.8.2. Hibar Resistance Welding Module Validation             

                22.8.3. Hibar Beading Module Validation                            

                22.8.4. Hibar Sealant Dispensing Module Validation              

                22.8.5. Hibar Electrolyte Filling Module Validation                

                22.8.6. Hibar Electrolyte Filling System Performance Validation

                22.8.7. Hibar Top Tab Welding and Taping Module Validation  

                22.8.8. Hibar Crimping System Validation                          


  • Photographs of PLANT & Machinery with


      Supplier’s Contact Details

Lead Battery Recycling Plant   

Battery Automatic Plate Pasting Machine

Lead Battery Recycling Plant   

Lithium-Ion Battery Machine     

Lithium-Ion Battery Tester       

Vacuum Oven         

Vacuum Drying Oven for Lithium-Ion Battery         

Planetary Mixer Vacuum Jacketed         

Battery Inter-cell Welding Machine         

Automatic Battery Assembling Plant      

Battery Breaking and Separation Ds Systems       

Electrode Coating Machine      

Battery Plate Enveloping Machine         

Lead Battery Breaking Plant    

Battery Cutting Machine         

Battery Cell Spot Welding Machine        

Semi-Auto Grooving Machine for Cylindrical Cell   

Battery Heat Sealing Machine  

Battery Laser Welding Machine 

Electric Battery Lead Melting Furnace     


The global battery market was worth USD 108.4 billion and is predicted to increase at a CAGR of 14.1%. The increasing demand for automotive applications is responsible for the market’s rise. The rising global popularity of consumer electronics is expected to increase the use of lithium-ion batteries as a product category.

Portable electronics, such as LCD displays, smartphones, tablets, and wearable devices like fitness bands, are in high demand, increasing market growth. Because of technical developments in terms of increased efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and product innovation, the market is predicted to rise significantly. Battery demand is likely to be driven by strict emission requirements imposed by government agencies in industrialized countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as an increasing focus on fuel efficiency.

The Demand for Lithium-Ion batteries is predicted to increase by more than 500 percent in the future. Many predictions suggest that demand will outpace supply, virtually assuring a price increase. All of the businesses in this field have unique opportunities to invest in the future of energy storage and transportation.

The global lithium-ion battery market size was valued at USD 53.6 billion and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.0%. The market’s expansion can be ascribed to the rising demand for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and grid storage since they provide high-energy density and lightweight solutions. The market size is expected to grow due to an increase in the registration of electric vehicles.

Lead-Acid Battery Demand

The global lead-acid battery industry is growing significantly across the globe and it is likely to register a CAGR of 5.2% during the forecast period. Growing SLI applications in the automobile sector, an increase in renewable energy output, and rising demand for energy storage devices are some of the causes driving up demand for lead-acid batteries.

As the telecom industry expands in nations like the United States, Brazil, India, and the United Kingdom, there is a growing demand for UPS systems as a backup power source, resulting in higher usage of lead-acid batteries as a cost-effective energy source.


The book covers a wide range of topics connected to Batteries, as well as their manufacturing processes. It also includes contact information for machinery suppliers, as well as images of equipment.

A complete guide on Production, Recycling of Lithium-Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries manufacture and entrepreneurship. This book serves as a one-stop-shop for everything you need to know about the battery manufacturing industry, which is ripe with opportunities for manufacturers, merchants, and entrepreneurs. This is the only book that covers the Production, Recycling of Lithium-Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries in depth. From concept through equipment procurement, it is a veritable feast of how-to information.

So, order it now before it goes out of stock.

About Niir Project Consultancy Services (NPCS)

NPCS provides reliable consultancy services worldwide and has been excelling in its expertise in a wide range of services. NPCS also published a monthly magazine Entrepreneur India since 1995. Which is widely read by Entrepreneurs, businessmen, etc. The services include investment opportunities, technology transfers, pre-feasibility study, business plan, new project identification, project feasibility, identification of profitable industrial project opportunities, thorough analysis of the project, plan of all resources & details on capital and operational costs, economic feasibility study of the project, profile analysis, preparation of project profiles / pre-investment studies, market surveys/studies, preparation of techno-economic feasibility reports, funding analysis, market potential study, identification and section of plant /process/equipment, general guidance, technical and commercial counseling for setting up new business.


Media Contact:

Ajay Gupta

+91 8800733955

[email protected]


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